NASHVILLE, TN ­­­– We can’t prove it. Between 2010-2014 the Department of Children’s Services (DCS) installed a new computer system called TFACTS. The Tribune has asked DCS for information TFACTS could provide. But DCS’s General Counsel, Douglas Dimond, has repeatedly said they do not have or do not track that data. They have it. They just don’t want to share it.

How many kids get returned to their parents?  How many permanent placements get how much in federal bounty under the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997? How much in monthly payments do adoptive parents get when DCS gives them custody? How many kids, once taken by DCS, never get out until they turn 18? What is the case manager workload across all 12 regions in the state? How many monthly visits with the families and children in DCS custody do they miss?

The answers to these questions would show what DCS is actually doing with its $913 million budget. It has been playing a musical chairs game since at least 2016 when DCS stopped including performance and real outcome data in its annual reports to the Governor. 

In those reports DCS gilds the lily and hides the truth by stressing process over actual outcomes. “Suppose they can show in 2017 there were fewer cases per worker. That doesn’t mean the kids are doing better,” said Richard Wexler, a prominent critic of Child Welfare systems in the U.S. 

Richard Wexler is a noted child welfare advocate and executive director of the National Coalition for Child Protection Reform.

In the business world, DCS’s lack of accountability and transparency would prompt a major housecleaning. But this is social welfare for children and DCS plays the role as their champion and defender. Critics like Wexler say what they are really all about is taking poor kids from their families to feed a network of foster homes that collect money for strangers to parent the children DCS has wrongfully removed from their families.

The Tribune has reported a number of those cases. But to really know how badly DCS is serving Tennessee’s neediest children, somebody has to lift up the curtain DCS officials have dropped around its TFACTS computer tracking system. 

It will take elected officials to demand access to TFACTS to get information DCS is hiding or it will take some brave soul who works there to leak it. There are 6200 DCS workers with access to TFACTS. One whistleblower leaked documents to Channel 5’s Ben Hall last October. Ultimately, it may take another lawsuit like the 2001 Brian A. v Sundquist case to force DCS to be more transparent and open about its operations. 

In the meantime, the Tribune can report Tennessee is spending a lot more money than the national average on child welfare but not getting the results Alabama gets getting kids adopted or returning them to their parents while spending much less money. 

In 2014 DCS spent $271,421,700 on custody services. In 2019-20, DCS spent $384,251,000 on custody services. The department is taking more kids into custody every year and that costs more money but children are not exiting at the same rate, so room and board costs have skyrocketed in 7 years. 

According to the federal Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS) Alabama does a better job returning kids home. From 2015-2019, 70% of children taken into custody were returned to their parents. From 2015-2019 in Tennessee only 56% of children taken into custody were reunited with their families.

One third of children who entered the system in Tennessee between 2015-2019 were taken back into custody after leaving it. In Alabama between 2015-2019, only 18% of kids returned to the foster system.

Between 2015-2019, 78% percent of children in Alabama had two or fewer placements in their first year in foster care. In Tennessee, that number was 68%. 

Rates of Removal

The National Coalition for Child Protection Reform (NCCPR) created indices of spending, removals, and placements for all 50 states. The data come from the Census Bureau, Department of Health and Human Services Administration for Children and Families (ACF), AFCARS, surveys, and state data. 

With all those sources, it’s not all guesswork but NCCPR notes a number of caveats they considered before ranking states by how much they spend per child, how many kids they take into custody in a year, how many poor kids they take, how many kinship placements are not reported, which skews the foster care numbers in some states like Texas and Kansas.

“There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies, and statistics,” Mark Twin wrote in his 1907 autobiography. Richard Wexler, Executive Director of NCCPR, is well aware that numbers are often used to persuade people to a point of view.  When they aren’t accurate or missing, that’s not good.

You can read about NCCPR’s analysis, methodology, and find the tables for 2019 and 2020 here:

The rate of removal index ranks states by the number of children taken from their homes for every 1,000 impoverished children in that state. The purpose is to “compare the propensity of states to adopt a ‘take-the-child-and-run’ approach to child welfare.’  NCCPR’s rationale for using children’s poverty rates rather than the total child population in a state is because child protective services agencies almost never take children from affluent families, and using the total child population would allow affluent states that still take large numbers of children from impoverished neighborhoods to camouflage this fact. 

The removal index does not use a “snapshot” at the end of the fiscal year to rank states but rather custody numbers over the course of a year and it compares them to the number of children living in poverty in each state using the Census Bureau’s last three population surveys.

Wexler argues that using poverty statistics is a more accurate way to assess child welfare in the U.S. But he notes that ACF is not enforcing regulations that require states to report “hidden foster care” placements with relatives, and states like Texas and Virginia simply do not report them. 


StateAverage number of children living in poverty, 2018-2020Entries into foster care, 2020Rate-of-Removal per thousand impoverished children Rank
The higher the rank the better by comparison. The national average rate of removal of poor kids is 19.1. For all kids it is 3.0


StateAverage number of children living in poverty, 2018-2020Children in Foster Care, Sept. 30, 2020Rate-of-Placement per thousand impoverished childrenRank
The national average rate-of-placement for poor children is 35.8. By comparison, the national average rate of placement per thousand of total child population is 5.5.

“The point is, Tennessee is an outlier – it takes away far too many children and that problem drives everything else,” Wexler told the Tribune.  Such widespread kidnapping by the state–when it’s not justified—drives practice, drives financial incentives, drives foster care recruitment, drives contract provider contracts—the full monty.

In 2019, the rate of removal in Tennessee was more than 20% above the national average. In 2020 it was about 10% above the national average but because of COVID, 2020 data may not be as reliable as 2019 numbers, which are worse than 2020.

Rates of Spending 

NCCPR compared 2018 child welfare spending among the states and like the other indices, they divided spending both by the total child population and the number of impoverished children in each state.

“Because poverty both contributes to actual child abuse and neglect and is so often confused with child neglect, we believe this is the fairer measure,” said the May 2021 press release.

The report notes some caveats: it does not factor in cost of living among states, it does combine all federal, state, and local child welfare expenditures but not figures where counties run their own welfare systems. The data come from voluntary surveys. 

“Despite these limitations, we believe that the comparison is useful for determining “outliers”  – that is, states which spend far more, or far less, than average. And we believe it is useful for noting significant differences among states,” the report said.

NCCPR 2018 RATE-OF-SPENDING INDEX, Impoverished Children 


StateImpoverished child population Child Welfare SpendingSpending per impoverished child Rank
Tennessee262,000$840,484,149 $3,208 21
The average spending on impoverished children was $2,779.


StateChild population, 2018 Child Welfare Spending, 2018Spending per child Rank
Tennessee1,473,000$840,484,149 $571 13
The average spending for all children was $450.

“It turns out Tennessee spends at a rate above the national average, Alabama is below the national average, but Alabama gets better results. Part of the reason: foster care costs more than keeping families together. In child welfare the worse the option, the more it costs,” Wexler said.

No wonder DCS is hiding the TFACTS data. It spends more money but gets worse outcomes than neighboring Alabama. 

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1 Comment

  1. Mr Weller plz help me tn dcs stole my son I been fighting a year they lied under oath judge ignored ot proceeded on court knowing I have no counsel mine had step down broke my hippa refused to represent me falsified results of urine test make derogatory remarks during team meet conference about me and in o en court took my calls for falsified hope inappropriate conversations and mental abuse or so they said telling my son truth was and then stopped visit in court when I was sick couldn’t be there and jo attorney dcs filed false statement for warrant get me locked up 2 half hours so they could steal my son placed him custody 9 days before I ever seen a judge or was ever drug screened witch I passed she falsified and write on same result paper but 2 faint lines were there refused send me paper work didn’t do home visit for 5 months ir drug screens for 5 months called the mental eval Dr told him I lied abut my bipolor now trying make me re do iop when I already did it bleed me threatened me in open court with my visits if I didn’t take folical then there me telling them I wanted a new attorney appointed first cause I dint have one they failed judge to failed to appointed me new one and me explaining I had chemicals and temp die from Halloween on my hair forced me to any way and still took my visits along with alot more I can prove all this there got g to try on April 11 2022 to take my parental rights plz someone help me I’m not a bad mother I just don’t have a big last name or a big bank roll I live on disability fought a year now can’t find an attorney to help me that I can afford found 1 in Crossville tn ivy Gardner 5000$ I’ve tried but I can’t come up with that I’d sell my last breath and soul if I could I love my kids all 3 my son is now where he don’t sleep he shakes all time chews his nails plz there harming my son mentaly and physically I reported bruises on his neck rights after they placed hom and his pinky and finger beside it and half hand broken rights after nothing done when I ask him he shook and said mom plz let it go don’t say nothing I don’t want sent to Taft or a boys home he reported to me his placement mom is mean to him screams at him I got txt him crying begging me hurry get me out mom plz I dint know what else to do it’s heart wrenching knowing my son is scared hurt and needs me and I can’t get to him or help him plz help us plz

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